How can we effectively integrate the strongly fluctuating output of wind energy and photovoltaic plants into our energy system? With sector coupling at system level the following basic principle can be implemented:
1. If there is a corresponding demand for electricity and if the electricity transport is technically possible, the electricity generated from renewable energy sources will be transported via the electricity grid and used directly.
2. If the electricity networks are fully utilised or consumers demand less electricity than is available, the electrical energy will be transformed using power-to-gas plants, transported in the form of gas and used in other sectors. This enables the growth of renewable energy to be decoupled from the expansion of electricity grids in future.
3. If need be, in the event of supply bottlenecks gas could be converted back into electricity in power plants on the market. However, this is unlikely to be the case for decades.